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What is Evolutionary Plant Breeding for Climate-Adaptation?

Farmers around the world are participating in a process called Evolutionary Plant Breeding (EPB) to develop new varieties of food crops that will thrive and adapt to a changing climate.  With EPB, farmers gather and mix seeds from hundreds to thousands of different varieties of a food crop that is culturally, ecologically and nutritionally important to their place.  Farmers then plant the seed mixtures in their fields each year, creating a living, evolving gene bank that will adapt over time to the local climate and agricultural practices through the process of natural selection. In addition to harvesting the mixture for sustenance and market (trials in the Middle East and Italy have shown that bread made from diverse mixtures of bread wheat can reduce or even eliminate gluten-intolerance), farmers can select out of the mixture individual varieties to grow out as new, locally-unique varieties that have improved genetics and adaptations from the mixture.

For over 20 years, OAEC has curated, evolved, and shared a collection of over 2,000 open-pollinated seeds of regionally-appropriate food, medicinal, fiber, and herbal crops towards preserving and cultivating biodiversity. In contrast, industrial seed breeding, especially of our most nutritionally and culturally important food crops (i.e. wheat, maize, and rice), has focused on uniformity and stability across broad and diverse bioregions – creating a crisis of resilience in our seed systems in a time of profound climatic instability.  OAEC’s Wheat EPB project is a response to this industrial seed breeding paradigm.


In 2016, OAEC’s Kendall Dunnigan and Cooper Freeman, obtained over 550 varieties of winter bread wheat from the USDA seed bank, mixed them together, and planted the mixture in 4 different plots around Sonoma County – here in our home North Garden in Occidental, at the Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria tribal garden in Rohnert Park, the Northwest Prep Charter School garden in north Santa Rosa, and the Bayer Farm Neighborhood Park and Garden in the Roseland district of Santa Rosa.  In years to come, we hope to expand both the number of varieties and the number and size of the plots being planted by our seed-saving partners around the county and beyond.


Above:  On Tuesday, August 15th, 2017 we were honored to host ICARDA scientist Dr. Salvatore Ceccarelli, a leading international innovator in this field.  He gave a talk on participatory and evolutionary plant breeding for a group of our friends and collaborators in the seed-sovereignty/seed-saving movement here in Sonoma County. Stories from his work in arid regions in the Middle East & North Africa pointed to a hopeful vision for the future of democratic, farmer-led seed improvement programs in the face of rapid climate change in drought-affected communities such as ours.  Click here and here to learn more about his inspiring research.

Potential Benefits of Evolutionary Plant Breeding

Increases Biodiversity

produces new varieties which are unique to each location

Enhances Agricultural Resilience to Climate Change

an inexpensive, dynamic, and fast way of adapting crops to a changing climate through natural selection

Ideal for Organic Agriculture

fits crops to the Environment rather than modifying the environment and therefore is ideal for organic conditions

Decreases Crop Vulnerability

diverse seed mixtures better resist weeds, diseases, pests and natural disasters

Rejects Ownership of Life

evolutionary populations are not patentable

Maintains Seed Vitality

gets seeds out of seed banks and into farmers’ fields

Returns Seed Breeding and Selection to Farmers and Gardeners

puts control back into the hands of farmers and gardeners, and away from multi-national corporations

Decentralizes the Seed Supply

supports local seed systems and encourages farmer participation


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